Gerald Besson Carnival and the Steel Drum
Dr. Edward Largo in the documentary The Rhythm of Steel with an audio clip of Mansa Musa drummers with Andre Tanker on flute.
Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago originally had its roots in both West African festivals and French Catholic carnival celebrations, where masks were donned and social visits ensued.
When the use of drums and religious practices were prohibited, slaves (and then former slaves) found novel ways to pass on their heritage. Carnival then grew with African influences from the slaves who added singing, dancing, and music to transform Carnival into what we see today…Wikipedia